A Xholli et al (Human Reproduction, dead014, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead014) Published:03 March 2023
Analysed whether there is a possible etiologic link between cervical stiffness and adenomyosis and observed that Women with adenomyosis have a stiffer internal cervical os than those without adenomyosis.
A cross-sectional study on 275 women was performed between 1 February and 31 July 2022.
Among the participants, 103 were and 172 women were not affected by adenomyosis as evaluated by ultrasonography. General and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected. Strain elastography was used to document tissue stiffness at different regions of interest of the cervix, i.e. the internal cervical os, the middle cervical canal, the anterior and the posterior cervical compartment. Tissue stiffness was expressed as a colour score from 0.1 = blue/violet (high stiffness) to 3.0 = red (low stiffness). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relation between the presence of adenomyosis, as the dependent variable, and independent factors.
Women with adenomyosis had a higher prevalence (P = 0.0001) and intensity (P = 0.0001) of pain during menses, between menses and at intercourse compared to control. The internal cervical os colour score was lower (higher stiffness) in women with adenomyosis (0.55 ± 0.29 versus 0.67 ± 0.26; P = 0.001) and the middle cervical canal/internal cervical os colour score ratio was greater (3.32 ± 4.36 versus 2.59 ± 4.99; P = 0.008), compared to controls. Upon logistic regression modelling (R2 = 0.077), the internal cervical os stiffness was an independent factor related to adenomyosis (odds ratio (OR) 0.220, 95% CI 0.077, 0.627; P = 0.005) along with age (P = 0.005) and the use of gonadal steroid therapies (P = 0.002). We obtained the same results using a different logistic regression model (R2 = 0.069), by substituting the internal cervical os stiffness with the ratio of the middle cervical canal/internal cervical os stiffness (OR 1.157, 95% CI 1.024, 1.309; P = 0.019).